Here are the references for the Get the Facts section of our web site, and a few extras for good measure. All the information in the following sections was compiled by Marcella Raimondo, MPH, PhD, or by Elisabeth Dittrich, PhD, for her dissertation on Sociocultural Factors that Influence Body Image Satisfaction Among Women. If you see important information missing here, please contact us to let us know!
Listed alphabetically by author’s last name.
Abrams, K.K., Allen, L., & Gray, J.J. (1993). Disordered eating attitudes and behaviors, psychological adjustment, and ethnic identity: A comparison of Black and White female college students. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 14, 49-57.
Academy of Eating Disorders (AED). (2007). About eating disorders – Prevalence of eating disorders. Retrieved from http://www.aedweb.org//AM/Template.cfm?Section=Home
Agras, W.S., Brandt, H.A., Bulik, C.M., Dolan-Sewell, R., Fairburn, C.G., Halmi, K.A., et al. (2004). Report of the national institutes of health workshop on overcoming barriers to treatment research in anorexia nervosa. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 35, 509-521.
Akan, G.E., & Grilo, C.M. (1995). Sociocultural influences on eating attitudes and behaviors, body image, and psychological functioning: A comparison of African-American, Asian-American, and Caucasian college women. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 18 (2), 181-187.
American Association of University Women. (1990). Shortchanging girls, shortchanging America: Full data report. Washington, DC: American Association of University Women.
American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th edition. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th edition, text revision. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
American Psychological Association. Task force on the sexualization of girls. (2007). Report of the APA Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Retrieved from: www.apa.org/pi/wpo/sexualization.html
Andersen, A. & Holman, J.E. (1997). Males with eating disorders: Challenges for treatment and research. Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 33 (3), 391-397.
Anderson, A.E., & DiDomenico, L. (1992). Diet vs. shape content of popular male and female magazines: A dose-response relationship to the incidence of eating disorders? International Journal of Eating Disorders, 11 (3), 283-287.
Attie, I., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (1989). Development of eating problems in adolescent girls: A longitudinal study. Developmental Psychology, 25, 70-79.
Austin, E.W., Roberts, D.F., & Nass, C.I. (1990). Influences of family communication on children’s television-interpretation processes. Communication Research, 17 (4), 545-564.
Baker, D., Sivyer, R., & Towell, T. (1998). Body image dissatisfaction and eating attitudes in visually impaired women. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 24 (3), 319-322.
Bandura, A., & Walters, R.H. (1963). Social learning and personality development. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
Bartky, S.L. (1988). Foucault, femininity, and the modernization of patriarchal power. In I. Diamond & L. Quinby (Eds.), Feminism and Foucault: Reflections on Resistance (61-886). Boston: Northeastern University Press.
Basow, S.A., & Braman, A.C. (1998). Women and body hair: Social perceptions and attitudes. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 22, 637-645.
Becker, A.E., & Hamburg, P. (1996). Culture, the media, and eating disorders. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 4.
Beren, S.E., & Chrisler, J.C. (1990). Gender role, need for approval, childishness, and self-esteem: Markers of disordered eating? Research Communications in Psychology, Psychiatry and Behavior, 15, 183-198.
Berg, F.M. (1997). Three major U.S. studies describe trends. Healthy Weight Journal, 11 (4), 67-74.
Bergeron, S.M., & Senn, C.Y. (1998). Body image and sociocultural norms: A comparison of heterosexual and lesbian women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 22, 385-401.
Berry, G.L., & Asamen, J.K. (Eds.). (1993). Children & television: Images in a changing sociocultural world, 179-190. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
Berry, J.W., Trimble, J.E., & Olmedo, E.L. (1986). Assessment of acculturation. In W.J. Lenner & J.W. Berry (Eds.), Field methods of cross-cultural research(291-349). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
Bessenoff, G. (2006, September). Can the media affect us? Social comparison, self-discrepancy, and the thin ideal. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 30 (3), 239-251.
Birmingham, C.L., Su, J., & Hlynsky, J.A. (2005). The mortality rate from anorexia nervosa. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 38, 143-146.
The Body Positive. (2009). The Body Positive. Retrieved from http://thebodypositive.org
Bordo, S. (1993). Unbearable Weight. New York: Berkley Publishing Group.
Brody, L. (1995, November). Are we losing our girls? Shape, 94-98.
Brown, L. & Rothblum, E. (Eds.). (1989). Overcoming Fear of Fat. Harrington Park Press.
Button, E.J., & Whitehouse, A. (1981). Subclinical anorexia nervosa. Psychological Medicine, 11, 509-516.
Brownell, K.D. (1991). Dieting and the search for the perfect body: Where physiology and culture collide. Behavior Therapy, 22, 1-12.
Brownell, K.D., Puhl, R.M., Schwart, M.B., & Rudd L. (eds.). (2005). Weight Bias: Nature, Consequences, and Remedies. New York: Guilford.
Cachelin, F., & Regan, P. (2006). Prevalence and correlates of chronic dieting in a multiethnic U.S. community sample. Eating and Weight Disorders, 11, 91-99.
Cachelin, F.M., & Striegel-Moore, R. (2006). Help seeking and barriers to treatment in a community sample of Mexican American and European American women with eating disorders. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 39, 154-161.
Calderon, L.L., Yu, C.K., & Jambazian, P. (2004). Dieting practices in high schools students. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 104, 1369-1374.
Cash, T.F., & Henry, P.E. (1995). Women’s body images: The results of a national survey in the U.S.A. Sex Roles, 33 (1/2), 19-28.
Cash, T.F. & Pruzinsky, T. (Eds.). (1990). Body Images: Development, Deviance and Change. New York: Guilford Press.
Cash, T.F., Winstead, B.W., & Janda, L.H. (1986). The great American shape-up: Body image survey report. Psychology Today, 20 (4), 30-37.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2004, May 21). Surveillance summaries: Youth risk behavior surveillance – United States, 2003. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), 53 (SS02), 1-96.
Chamay-Weber, C., Narring, F., & Michaud, P.A. (2005). Partial eating disorders among adolescents: A review. Journal of Adolescent Health, 37, 417-427.
Cogan, J.C., Bhalla, S.K., Sefa-Dedeh, A., & Rothblum, E.D. (1996). A comparison study of United States and African students on perceptions of obesity and thinness. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 27 (1), 98-113.
Collins, J.K., Beumont, P.J., Touyz, S.W., Krass, J., Thompson, P., & Philips, T. (1987). Variability in body shape perception in anorexic, bulimic, obese and control subjects. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 6, 633-638.
Commission on Adolescent Eating Disorders. (2005). Eating disorders. In D.L. Evans et al. (Eds.), Treating and Preventing Adolescent Mental Health Disorders: What We Know and What We Don’t Know (257). New York: Oxford University Press.
Comstock, G. & Strasburger, V. (1990). Deceptive appearances: Television violence and aggressive behavior. Journal of Adolescent Health Care, 11, 31-44.
Cooke, K. (1996). Real gorgeous. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc.
Cooper, P.J., Taylor, M.J., Cooper, Z., & Fairburn, C.G. (1987). The development and validation of the body shape questionnaire. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 6, 485-494.
Cosmetic Plastic Surgery Research. (2009, November). Statistics and trends for 2001-2007. Plastic Surgery Research.info. Retrieved from http://www.cosmeticplasticsurgerystatistics.com/statistics.html
Counts, C.R., & Adams, H. (1985). Body image in bulimic, dieting, and normal females. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 7 (3), 289-301.
Crago, M., Shisslak, C.M., & Estes, L.S. (1996). Eating disturbances among American minority groups: A review. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 19 (3), 239-248.
Crouch, A., & Degelman, D. (1998). Influence of female body images in printed advertising on self-ratings of physical attractiveness by adolescent girls.Perceptual & Motor Skills, 87 (2), 585-586.
Cusumano, D., & Thompson, J. K. (1997). Body image and body shape ideals in magazines: Exposure, awareness, and internalization. Sex Roles, 37 (9/10).
Davis, C., & Katzman, M. (1999). Perfection as acculturation: Psychological correlates of eating problems in Chinese male and female students living in the United States. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 25 (1), 65-70.
Dietz, T.L. (1998). An examination of violence and gender role portrayals in video games: Implications for gender socialization and aggressive behavior. Sex Roles, 38 (5-6), 425-442.
Dietz, W. (1998). Health consequences of obesity in youth childhood predictors of adult disease. Pediatrics, 101, 518-525.
Dines, G., Jensen, R. & Russo, A. (Eds.). (1998). Pornography: The Production and Consumption of Inequality. New York: Routledge.
Dittrich, E.A. (1997). Sociocultural factors that influence body image satisfaction in women. (Doctoral Dissertation, California Institute of Integral Studies.) Dissertation Abstracts International.
Dolan, B., Birtchnell, S., & Lacey, J.H. (1987). Body image distortion in non-eating disordered women and men. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 31 (4), 513-520.
Dolan, B. (1991). Cross-cultural aspects of anorexia nervosa and bulimia: A review. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 10 (1), 67-81.
Drinkwater, B.L., Loucks, A., Sherman, R.T., Sundgot-Borgen, J., & Thompson, R.A. (2005). Position stand on the female athlete triad. IOC Medical Commission Working Group of Women in Sport.
Eisenberg, M.E., Neumark-Sztainer, D., & Story, M. (2003). Associations of weight-based teasing and emotional well-being among adolescents. Archives of Pediatric & Adolescent Medicine, 157, 733-738.
Evans, C., & Dolan, B. (1993). Body shape questionnaire: Derivation of shortened “alternate forms”. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 13 (3), 315-321.
Fabian, L.J., & Thompson, J.K. (1989). Body image and eating disturbance in young females. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 8 (1), 63-74.
Fairburn, C., & Bohn, K. (2005). Eating disorders NOS (EDNOS): An example of the troublesome ‘Not Otherwise Specified’ (NOS) category in the DSM-IV.Behavior Research and Therapy, 43 (2006), 691-701.
Fairburn, C.G., & Garner, D.M. (1986). The diagnosis of bulimia nervosa. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 10, 67-79.
Fairburn, C.G., & Garner, D.M. (1988). Diagnostic criteria for anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa: The importance of attitudes to weight and shape. In D.M. Garner & P.E. Garfinkel (Eds.), Diagnostic issues in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa (36-55). New York: Brunner/Mazel.
Fernandez, F., Probst, M., Meerman, R., & Vandereycken, W. (1994). Body size estimation and body dissatisfaction on eating disorder patients and normal controls. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 16 (3), 307-310.
Festinger, L. (1954). A theory of social comparison processes. Human Relations, 7, 117-140.
Fisher, M., Golden, N.H., & Katzman, D.K. (1995). Eating disorders in adolescents: A background paper. Journal of Adolescent Health, 16, 420-437.
Flegal, K.M., Graubard, B.I., Williamson, D.F., & Gail, M.H. (2005). Excess deaths associated with underweight, overweight, and obesity. Journal of the American Medical Association, 293, 1861-1867.
Forehand, M.R. (2001). What we see makes us who we are: Priming ethnic self-awareness and advertising response. Journal of Marketing Research, 38, 336-348.
Franko, D.L. & Herrera, I. (1997). Body image differences in Guatemalan-American and White college women. Eating Disorders: The Journal of Treatment and Prevention, 5 (2), 119-127.
Fraser, L. (1997). Losing it: America’s Obsession With Weight and the Industry That Feeds on it. New York: Penguin Books.
Fredrickson, B.L., & Harrison, K. (2005). Throwing like a girl: Self-objectification predicts adolescent girls’ motor performance. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 29, 79-101.
Fredrickson, B.L., & Roberts, T.A. (1997). Objectification theory: Toward understanding women’s lived experience and mental health risks. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 21 (2), 173-206.
Fredrickson, Roberts, et al. (1998). That swimsuit becomes you: Sex differences in self-objectification, eating and math performance. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 75 (1), (269-284).
French, S., et al. (1997). Ethnic differences in psychosocial and health behavior correlates of dieting, purging, and binge eating in a population-based sample of adolescent females. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 22, 315-322.
Frisch, M.J., Herzog, D.B., & Franko, D.L. (2006, July). Residential treatment for eating disorders. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 39 (5), 434-442.
Furnham, A., & Greaves, N. (1994). Gender and locus of control correlates of body image dissatisfaction. European Journal of Personality, 8, 183-200.
Gaesser, G.A. (2003). Is it necessary to be thin to be healthy? Harvard Health Policy Review, 4, 40-47.
Gapinski, K.D., Brownell, K.D., & LaFrance, M. (2003). Body objectification and “fat talk”: Effects on emotion, motivation, and cognitive performance. Sex Roles, 48, 377-388.
Gard, M.C.E., & Freeman, C.P. (1996). The dismantling of a myth: A review of eating disorders and socioeconomic status. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 20 (1), 1-12.
Garner, D.M. (1997, January/February). The 1997 body image survey results. Psychology Today, 31-44, 75-84.
Garner, D.M., Garfinkel, P.E., Schwartz, D., & Thompson, M. (1980). Cultural expectations of thinness in women. Psychological Reports, 47, 483-491.
Garner, D.M., Olmstead, M.P., & Polivy, J. (1983). Development and validation of a multidimensional eating disorder inventory for anorexia nervosa and bulimia. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 2 (2), 15-34.
Garner, D.M., Olmstead, M.P., Polivy, J., & Garfinkel P.E. (1984). Comparison between weight- preoccupied women and anorexia-nervosa. Psychosomatic Medicine, 46, (3), 255-266.
Geller, J., Johnston, C., Madsen, K., Goldner, E.M., Remick, R.A., & Birmingham, C.L. (1998). Shape- and weight-based self-esteem and the eating disorders.International Journal of Eating Disorders, 24 (3), 285-298.
Gerbner, G., Gross, L., Morgan, M., & Signorielli, N. (1994). Growing up with television: The cultivation perspective. In J. Bryant & D. Zillmann (Eds.), Media effects: Advances in theory and research (17-41). Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
Gilbert, K. (1998). The body, young children and popular culture. In N. Yelland et al. (Eds.), Gender in early childhood (55-71). New York: Routledge.
Goldman, E.L. (1996). Eating disorders on the rise in preteens, adolescents. Psychiatry News, 24 (2), 10.
Gortmaker, S.L., Must, A., Perrin, J.M., Sobol, A., & Dietz, W.H. (1993). Social and economic consequences of overweight in adolescence and young adulthood. New England Journal of Medicine, 329, 1008-1012.
Grabe, S., Hyde, J.S., & Lindberg, S.M. (2007). Body objectification and depression in adolescents: The role of gender, shame, and rumination. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 31, 164-175.
Gray, J.J., Ford, K., & Kelly, L.M. (1987). The prevalence of bulimia in a Black college population. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 6 (6), 733-740.
Greenberg, B.S., Eastin, M., Hofschire, L., Lachlan, K., & Brownell, K.D. (2003). Portrayals of overweight and obese individuals on commercial television.American Journal of Public Health, 93, 1342-1348.
Gregory, D. (1994, August). Heavy judgment. Essence, 57-58, 105, 110-112 .
Grilo, C.M. (2002). Binge eating disorder. In C.G. Fairburn & K.D. Brownell (Eds.), Eating disorder and obesity: A comprehensive handbook (2nd edition). New York: Guilford Press.
Grilo, C.M., & Masheb, R.M. (2000). Onset of dieting versus binge eating in outpatients with binge eating disorder. International Journal of Obesity, 24, 404-409.
Grogan, S., Williams, Z., & Conner, M. (1996). The effects of viewing same-gender photographic models on body-esteem. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 20 (4).
Guillen, E.O., & Barr, S.I. (1994). Nutrition, dieting, and fitness messages in a magazine for adolescent women, 1970-1990. Journal of Adolescent Health, 15 (6), 464-472.
Hall, A., & Hay, P.J. (1991). Eating disorder patient referrals from a population region 1977-1986. Psychological Medicine, 21, 697-701.
Hallal, P., Victora, C., Azevedo, M., and Wells, J. (2006). Adolescent physical activity and health: A systematic review. Sports Medicine, 36, 1019-1030.
Hamilton, K., & Waller, G. (1993). Media influences on body size estimation in anorexia and bulimia: An experimental study. British Journal of Psychiatry, 162, 837-840.
Harris, S.M. (1994). Racial differences in predictors of college women’s body image attitudes. Women & Health, 21 (4), 89-103.
Harris Interactive. (2007). Weight and Obesity in America [Data file]. Prepared for National Consumers League. Retrieved from http://obesity.procon.org/sourcefiles/HarrisInterativePoll2007.pdf
Harrison, A.G., & Stonner, D.M. (1976). Reference groups for female attractiveness among Black and White college females. In W. E. Cross (Ed.), Third Conference on Empirical Research in Black Psychology (84-88). Washington, DC: US Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.
Harrison, K. (1997). Does interpersonal attraction to thin media personalities promote eating disorders? Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 41.
Harrison, K., & Cantor, J. (1997). The relationship between media consumption and eating disorders. Journal of Communication, 47 (1).
Harrison, K.M., and Fredrickson, B.L. (2003). Women’s sports media, self-objectification, and mental health in Black and White adolescent females. Journal of Communication, 53, 216-232.
Hartung, L. (1997). Disordered eating patterns in relation to gender in the college environment. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 97, 9, (Suppl): A-60.
Hawkins, N., Richards, P.S., Granley, H., and Stein, D.M. (2004). The impact of exposure to the thin-ideal media images on women. Eating Disorders: The Journal of Treatment and Prevention, 12, 35-50.
He, F., Marrero, N., MacGregor, G. (2006, December). Salt intake is related to soft drink consumption in children and adolescents; A link to obesity? Pediatrics, 118 (6), 1721-1733.
Hearold, S. (1986). A synthesis of 1045 effects of television on social behavior. In Comstock G. (Ed.), Public Communication and Behavior. New York: Academic Press.
Heatherton, T.F., Nichols, P., Mahademi, F., & Keel, P. (1995). Body weight, dieting, and eating disorder symptoms among college students, 1981 to 1992. American Journal of Psychiatry, 152 (11), 1623-1629.
Heatherton, T.F., & Polivy, J. (1992). Chronic dieting and eating disorders: A spiral model. In J. H. Crowther, D.L. Tennenbaum, S.E. Hobfold, & M.A. Parris (Eds.), The Etiology of Bulimia Nervosa: The Individual and Familial Context. Washington, DC: Hemisphere.
Hebl, M.R., King, E.G., & Lin, J. (2004). The swimsuit becomes us all: Ethnicity, gender, and vulnerability to self-objectification. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30, 1322-1331.
Heilman, E. (1998). The struggle for self: Power and identity in adolescent girls. Youth & Society, 30 (2), 182-208.
Heinberg. L.J., & Thompson, J.K. (1992). Social comparison: Gender, target importance ratings, and relation to body image disturbance. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 7 (2), 335-344.
Heinberg, L.J., & Thompson, J.K. (1995). Body image and televises images of thinness and attractiveness: A controlled laboratory study. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, Volume 14(4).
Heinberg, L.J., Thompson, J.K., & Stormer, S. (1995). Development and validation of the sociocultural attitudes towards appearance questionnaire. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 17 (1), 81-89.
Henderson-King, E., & Henderson-King, D. (1997). Media effects on women’s body esteem: Social and individual difference factors. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 27 (5).
Henig, R.M. (1996, May/June). The price of perfection. Civilization, 56-61.
Herzog, D.B. (1984). Are anorexic and bulimic patients depressed? American Journal of Psychiatry, 141, 1594-1597.
Hesse-Biber, S. (1996). Am I thin enough yet? (44-57). New York: Oxford University Press. Motivation for eating behaviour in adolescent girls: the body beautiful. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 65 (4), 376-384.
Hill, A.J., and Pallin, V. (1998). Dieting awareness and low self-worth: Related issues in 8-year-old girls. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 24 (4), 405-413.
Hillege, S., Beale, B., & McMaster, M. (2006, August). Impact of eating disorders on family life: Individual parents’ stories. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 15 (8), 1016-1022.
Hirschmann, J.R., & Munter, C.H. (1997). When Women Stop Hating Their Bodies. Fawcett Books.
Hoberman, H. (1990). Study group report on the impact of television violence on adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health Care, 11, 45-49.
Hobbs, R., Broder, S., Pope, H., & Rowe, J. (2006, October). How adolescent girls interpret weight-loss advertising. Health Education Research, 21 (5): 719-730.
Hoek, H.W., & Van Hoeken, D. (2003). Review of the prevalence and incidence of eating disorders. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 34, 383-396.
Huesmann, L., Rowell, Moise, J.F., & Podolski, C. (1997). The effects of media violence on the development of antisocial behavior. In D.M. Stoff, J. Breiling & J.D. Maser (Eds.), Handbook of Antisocial Behavior (181-193). New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Irving, L.M. (1990). Mirror images: Effects of the standard of beauty on the self- and body-esteem of women exhibiting various levels of bulimic symptoms. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 9 (2), 230-242.
Irving, L.M., Riddle, M., Berel, S., Cannon, R., Bower, Z., & Parks, C. (1997). Sociocultural contributors to disordered eating in adult women. Poster presented at the 1997 annual convention of the American Psychological Association, Chicago, IL.
Jacobson, M.F., & Mazur, L.A. (1996). Sexism and sexuality in advertising. In Marketing Madness (75-87). Boulder: Westview Press, Inc.
Jeffery, R.W., & French, S.A. (1996). Socioeconomic status and weight control practices among 20-to 45- year-old women. American Journal of Public Health, 86 (7), 1005-1010.
Johnson, J., Tobiu, D., & Lipkin, J. (1989). Epidemiologic changes in bulimic behavior among female adolescents over a five-year period. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 6 647-655.
Joiner, G.W., & Kashubeck, S. (1996). Acculturation, body image, self-esteem, and eating-disorder symptomatology in adolescent Mexican American women.Psychology of Women Quarterly, 20 (3), 419-435.
Kalodner, C.R. (1997). Media influences on male and female non-eating disordered college students: A significant issue. Eating Disorders: The Journal of Treatment and Prevention, 5 (1).
Keel, P.K., & D.B. Herzog. (2004). Long-term outcome, course of illness, and mortality in anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. Clinical Handbook of Eating Disorders: An Integrated Approach, 97-116.
Keys, A., Brozek, J., Henschel, A., Mickelsen, O., & Taylor, H. L. (1950). The Biology of Human Starvation. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Kilbourne, J. (1994). Still killing us softly: Advertising and the obsession with thinness. In P. Fallon, M.A. Katzman & S.C. Wooley (Eds.), Feminist Perspectives on Eating Disorders (395-418). New York: The Guilford Press.
Klesges, R.C., & Klesges, L.M. (1988). Cigarette smoking as a dieting strategy in a university population. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 7 (3), 413-419.
Koenig, L., & Wasserman, E.L. (1995). Body image and dieting failure in college men and women: Examining links between depression and eating problems. Sex Roles, 32 (3/4), 225-249.
Kog, E., & Vandereycken, W. (1989). Family interaction in eating disorder patients and normal controls. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 8 (1), 11-23
Kohn, M., & Schooler, C. (1983). Work and Personality: An Inquiry Into the Impact of Social Stratification. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
Kraig, K.A., & Keel, P.K. (2001). Weight-based stigmatization in children. International Journal of Obesity, 25, 1661-1666.
Krauth, C., Buser, K., & Vogel, H. (2002). How high are the costs of eating disorders – anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa – for German society? The European Journal of Health Economics, 3 (4), 244-250.
Kuczmarski, R.J., Flegal, K.M., Campbell, S.M., & Johnson, C.L. (1994). Increasing prevalence of overweight among US adults. Journal of the American Medical Association, 272 (3), 205-211.
Kunkel, D. & Roberts, D.F. (1991). Young minds and marketplace values: Issues in child television advertising. Journal of Social Issues, 47 (1), 57-72.
Kunkel, D., Wilson, B., Donnerstein, E., Linz, D., Smith, S., Gray, T., et al. (1995). Measuring television violence: The importance of context. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 39 (2), 284-291.
Lamb, S. (2002). The Secret Lives of Girls: What Good Girls Really Do – Sex Play, Aggression, and Their Guilt. New York: Free Press.
Lamb, S. (2006). Sex, Therapy, and Kids: Addressing Their Concerns Through Talk and Play. New York: Norton.
Lamb, S., & Brown, L.M. (2006). Packaging Girlhood: Rescuing our Daughters from Marketers’ Schemes. New York: St. Martin’s Press.
Le Grange, D., Stone, A.A., & Brownell, K. (1998). Eating disturbances in white and minority female dieters. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 24 (4), 395-403.
Le Grange, D., Telch, C.F., & Agras, W.S. (1997). Eating and general psychopathology in a sample of Caucasian and ethnic minority subjects. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 21 (3), 285-293.
Le Grange, D., Telch, C.F., & Tibbs, J. (1998). Eating attitudes and behaviors in 1,435 South African Caucasian and non-Caucasian college students. American Journal of Psychiatry,155 (2), 250-254.
Lee, S. (1993). How abnormal is the desire for thinness? A survey of eating attitudes and behaviour among Chinese undergraduates in Hong Kong. Psychological Medicine, 23, 437-451.
Lee, S., Leung, T., Lee, A.M., Yu, H., & Leung, C.M. (1996). Body dissatisfaction among Chinese undergraduates and its implications for eating disorders in Hong Kong. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 20 (1), 77-84.
Lester, R., & Petrie, T.A. (1995). Personality and physical correlates of bulimic symptomatology among Mexican American female college students. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 42 (2), 199-203.
Lester, R., & Petrie, T.A. (1998). Physical, psychological, and societal correlates of bulimic symptomatology among African American college women. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 45 (3), 315-321.
Lester, R., & Petrie, T.A. (1998). Prevalence of disordered eating behaviors and bulimia nervosa in a sample of Mexican American female college students. Journal of Multicultural Counseling & Development, 26 (3), 157-165.
Levine, M.P., & Smolak, L. (1997). Media as a context for the development of disordered eating. In L. Smolak, M. P. Levine, & R. Striegel-Moore (Eds.),Developmental Psychopathology of Eating Disorders (235-257). Mahwah, New Jersey: L. Erlbaum Associates.
Levine, M.P., & Smolak, L. (2006). The Prevention of Eating Problems and Eating Disorders: Theory, Research, and Practice. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Levine, M.P., & Smolak, L. (2007). Prevention of negative body image, disordered eating, and eating disorders: An update. In S.Wonderlich, J. Mitchell, M. De Zwaan & H. Steiger (Eds.), Annual Review of Eating Disorders: Part I.(1-14) Oxford: Radcliffe.
Levine, M.P., Smolak, L., & Hayden, H. (1994). The relation of sociocultural factors to eating attitudes and behaviors among middle school girls. Journal of Early Adolescence, 14 (4), 471-490.
Lightstone, J. (1999, October). Improving body image. October 99 Newsletter on Improving Body Image. Retrieved from http://www.psychotherapist.org/Index_archives_bodyimage.htm
Lipton, R., Drum, M., Burnet, D., Rich, B., Cooper, A., Baumann, E., et al. (2005, May). Obesity at the onset of diabetes in an ethnically diverse population of children: What does it mean for epidemiologists and clinicians? Pediatrics, 115 (5), 553-560.
Lucas, A.R., Beard, C.M., O’Fallon, W.M., & Kurland, L.T. (1991). 50-year trends in the incidence of anorexia nervosa in Rochester, Minn.: A population-based study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 148 (7), 917-922.
Lock, J., & Le Grange, D. (2005). Family-based treatment of eating disorders. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 37 (suppl.).
Marketdata Enterprises. (2007). U.S. weight loss market to reach $58 billion in 2007: Dieters seek convenience, good value, flexibility in programs [Doc]. Retrieved from http://www.marketdataenterprises.com/pressreleases/WeightLoss%20MarketPR04-2007.doc
Mathers, C.D., Vos, E.D., Stevenson, C.D., & Begg, S.J. (2000). The Australian burden of disease study: Measuring the loss of health from diseases, injuries and risk factors. Medical Journal of Australia, 172, 592-596.
Matsuura, K., Fujimura, M., Nozawa, Y., Iida, Y., & Hirayama, M. (1992). The body preference of Japanese female students. International Journal of Obesity, 16, 87-93.
McCarthy, M. (1990). The thin ideal, depression and eating disorders in women. Behavioural Research Therapy, 28 (3), 205-215.
McGeer, R., & Williams, S. (2000, October). Does low self-esteem predict health compromising behaviors among adolescents? Journal of Adolescence, 23 (5), 569-582.
McKinley, N.M., & Hyde, J.S. (1996). The objectified body consciousness scale. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 20 (2), 181-215.
Mediamark Research. 2005. Teen market profile [PDF]. Retrieved from http://www.magazine.org/content/files/teenprofile04.pdf [link no longer available]
Medicine.net. (2001). Definition of Obese. Retrieved from: http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=11760
Mendoza, R., & Martinez, J.L. (1981). The measurement of acculturation. In A. Baren, Jr. (Ed.), Explorations in Chicano Psychology (21-82). New York: Holt.
Michels, K.B., & Wolk, A. (2002). A prospective study of variety of healthy foods and mortality in women. International Journal of Epidemiology, 31, 847-854.
Miller, M. & Summers, A. (2007, November). Gender differences in video game characters’ roles, appearances, and attire as portrayed in video game magazines. Sex Roles, 57 (9-10), (733-742)
Millum, T. (1975). Images of Women: Advertising in Women’s Magazines. London: Chatto & Windus Ltd.
Minuchin, S., Rosman, B., & Baker, L. (1978). Psychosomatic Families: Anorexia Nervosa in Context. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Mitchell, J.E., & Pomeroy, C. (2001). Medical complications of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. In C.G. Fairburn & K.D. Brownell (Eds.), Eating Disorders and Obesity: A Comprehensive Handbook (2nd edition). New York: Guilford Press.
Mond, J., et al. (2006). An update on the definition of ‘excessive exercise’ in eating disorders research. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 39 (2), 147-153.
Monro, F., & Huon, G. (2005). Media-portrayed idealized images, body shame, and appearance anxiety. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 38, 85.
Moradi, Dirks, & Matteson. (2005). Roles of sexual objectification experiences and internalization of standards of beauty in eating disorder symptomatology: A test and extension of objectification theory. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 52 (3), 420-428.
Moreno, A., & Thelen, M.H. (1993). Parental factors related to bulimia nervosa. Addictive Behaviors, 18, 681-689.
Murray, S.H., Touyz, S.W., & Beumont, Peter, J.V. (1995). The influence of personal relationships on women’s eating behavior and body satisfaction. Eating Disorders: The Journal of Treatment and Prevention, 3 (3), 243-252.
Murray, S.H., Touyz, S.W., & Beumont, Peter, J.V. (1996). Awareness and perceived influence of body ideals in the media: A comparison of eating disordered patients and the general community. Eating Disorders: The Journal of Treatment and Prevention, 4 (1).
Myers, P.N., & Biocca, F.A. (1992). The elastic body image: The effect of television advertising and programming on body image distortions in young women. Journal of Communication, 42 (3).
National Association for Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa. Facts of eating disorders, retrieved July 20, 2007 from http://www.anad.org/get-information/about-eating-disorders/bulimia-nervosa/
Nemeroff, C.J., Stein, R.I., Diehl, N.S., & Smilack, K.M. (1994). From the Cleavers to the Clintons: Role choices and body orientation as reflected in magazine article content. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 16 (2).
Neumark-Sztainer, D., Butler, R., & Palti, H. (1995). Eating disturbances among adolescent girls: Evaluation of a school-based primary prevention program. Journal of Nutrition and Education, 27, 24-31.
Neumark-Sztainer, D., Paxton, S.J., Hannan, P.J., Haines, J., & Story, M. (2006). Does body satisfaction matter? Five-year longitudinal associations between body satisfaction and health behaviors in adolescent females and males. Journal of Adolescent Health, 39, 244-251.
Newman, C. (2000, January). The enigma of beauty. National Geographic, 94-121.
Nichter, M., Ritenbaugh, C., Vuckovic, N., & Aickin, M. (1995). Dieting and ‘watching’ behaviors among adolescent females: Report of a multimethod study. Journal of Adolescent Health, 17, 153-162.
Nielsen Media Research. (1998). 1998 Report on Television. New York: Nielsen Media Research.
Norman, A. (2007, July). Weight bias may harm obese children. Reuters Health Information. Retrieved from http://www.reuters.com/article/healthNews/idUSCOL86488020070718
Norring, C., & Palmer, R.L. (2005). EDNOS: Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified. Scientific and Clinical Perspectives on the Other Eating Disorders. Hove: Routledge.
Nutrition Business Journal. (2002). Supplement business report.
Nylander, I. (1971). The feeling of being fat and dieting in a school population: Epdemiologic, interview investigation. Acta Sociomedica Scandinavica, 3,17-26.
The Obesity Society. (2007). Obesity statistics. Retrieved from http://www.obesity.org/ [page no longer available]
Ogden ,C., Carroll, M., Curtin, L., McDowell, M., Tabak, C., & Flegal, K. (2006, April 5). Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States, 1999-2004. Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), 295 (13), 1549-1555.
Ogden, J. & Elder, C. (1998). The role of family status and ethnic group on body image and eating behavior. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 23 (3), 309-315.
Ogden, J., & Mundray, K. (1996). The effect of the media on body satisfaction: The role of gender and size. European Eating Disorders Review, 4 (3), 171-182.
Olmedo, E.L., & Padilla, A.M. (1978). Empirical and construct validation of a measure of acculturation for Mexican Americans. The Journal of Social Psychology, 105, 179-187.
Orecklin, M. (2004, March 1). At what cost beauty? Time, 50-51.
Orenstein, P. (1994). School Girls. New York: Doubleday.
Otis, C., Drinkwater, B., Johnson, M., Loucks, A.B., & Wilmore, J. (1997). American college of sports medicine position stand: the female athlete triad. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 29, i-ix.
Parker, S., Nichter, M., Vuckovic, N., Sims, C., & Ritenbaugh, C. (1995). Body image and weight concerns among African American and White adolescent females: Differences that make a difference. Human Organization, 54, 103-114.
Pate, J.E., Pumariega, A.J., Hester, C., & Garner, D.M. (1992). Cross-cultural patterns in eating disorders: A review. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 31 (5), 802-809.
Patton, G.C., Selzer, R., Doffey, C., Carlin, J.B., & Wolfe, R. (1999). Onset of adolescent eating disorders: Population-based cohort study over 3 years. British Medical Journal, 318, 765-768.
Paxton, S.J., Wertheim, E.H. Gibbons, K., Szmukler, G.I., et al. (1991).Body image satisfaction, dieting beliefs, and weight loss behaviors in adolescent girls and boys. Journal of Youth & Adolescence, 20 (3), 361-370.
Peirce, K. (1990). A feminist perspective on the socialization of teenage girls through Seventeen magazine. Sex Roles, 23 (9/10), 491-500.
Petrie, T.A. (1993). Disordered eating in female collegiate gymnasts: Prevalence and personality/attitudinal correlates. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 15, 424-436.
Pike, K.M., & Rodin, J. (1991). Mothers, daughters, and disordered eating. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100 (2), 198-204.
Pinhas, L., Toner, B.B., Ali, A., Garfinkel, P.E., et al. (1999). The effects of the ideal of female beauty on mood and body satisfaction. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 25 (2), 223-226.
Plastic Surgery Research.info. (2008). Cosmetic plastic surgery: Statistics and trends for 2001-2007. Retrieved from http://www.cosmeticplasticsurgerystatistics.com/statistics.html
Polivy, J., & Herman, C.P. (1983). Breaking the Diet Habit. New York: Basic Books.
Polivy, J., & Herman, C.P. (1987). Diagnosis and treatment of normal eating. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55 (5), 635-644.
Polivy, J., & Herman, C.P. (1995). Dieting and its relation to eating disorders. In K. D. Brownell & C. G. Fairburn (Eds.), Eating Disorders and Obesity: A Comprehensive Textbook for Eating Disorders and Obesity (83-86).
Posavac, H.D., Posavac, S.S., & Posavac, E.J. (1998). Exposure to media images of female attractiveness and concern with body weight among young women. Sex Roles, Vol. 38 (3/4), 187-201.
Powell, A.S., & Kahn, A.S. (1995). Racial differences in women’s desires to be thin. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 17 (2), 191-195.
Powers, P.D., & Erickson, M.T. (1986). Body-image in women and its relationship to self-image and body satisfaction. The Journal of Obesity and Weight Regulation, 5 (1), 37-49.
Preston, J.D., O’Neal, J.H., & Talaga, M.C. (2006). Handbook of Clinical Psychopharmacology for Therapists, 4th edition. Oakland, CA.: New Harbinger Publications, Inc.
Public Citizen Health Letter. (2004, July). Breast implants as high school graduation presents: Just poor parenting or child abuse? 10-12.
Pumariega, A., Gustavson, C.R., Gustavson, J.C., Stone Motes, P., & Ayers, S. (1994). Eating attitudes in African-American women: The Essence eating disorders survey. Eating Disorders: The Journal of Treatment and Prevention, 2 (1), 5-16.
Pyle, R.L., Neuman, P.A., Halvorson, P.A., & Mitchell, J.E. (1991). An ongoing cross-sectional study of the prevalence of eating disorders in freshman college students. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 10 (6), 667-677.
Rabak-Wagener, J., Eickhoff-Shemek, J., & Kelly-Vance, L. (1998). The effect of media analysis on attitudes and behaviors regarding body image among college students. Journal of American College Health, 47 (1), 29-35.
Reas, D., & Grilo, C. (2007). Timing and sequence of the onset of overweight, dieting, and binge eating in overweight patients with binge eating disorder. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 40, 165-170.
Remafedi, G. (1990). Study group report on the impact of television portrayals of gender roles on youth. Journal of Adolescent Health Care, 11, 59-61.
Richins, M.L. (1991). Social comparison and the idealized images of advertising. Journal of Consumer Research, 18, 71-83.
Roberts, D.F. (1993). Adolescents and the mass media: From Leave it to Beaver to Beverly Hills 902103. Teachers College Record, 94 (3), 629-644.
Robinson, B.E., & Bacon, J.G. (1996). The if only I were thin…treatment program: Decreasing the stigmatizing effects of fatness. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 27 (2), 175-183.
Rodin, J. (1992). Body traps. New York: William Morrow.
Rodin, J., Silberstein, L.R., & Striegel-Moore, R.H. (1984). Women and weight: Anormative discontent. In T. B. Sonderegger (Ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation, 32, Psychology and Gender. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1984. 267-307.
Root, M.P.P. (1990). Disordered eating in women of color. Sex Roles, 22 (7/8), 525-536.
Rosen, J.C., Reiter, J., & Orosan, P. (1995). Cognitive-behavioral body image therapy for body dysmorphic disorder. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 63(3), 437.
Rotter, J.B., Chance, J.E., & Phares, J.E. (1972). Applications of a Social Learning Theory of Personality. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, Inc.
Rucker, C.E. & Cash, T.F. (1992). Body images, body-size perceptions, and eating behaviors among African-American and White college women. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 12 (3), 291-299.
Schlenker, J., Caron, S.L., & Halteman, W.A. (1998). A feminist analysis of Seventeen magazine: Content analysis from 1945 to 1995. Sex roles, 38, 135-149.
Schmidt, U.H., Troop, N.A., & Treasure, J.L. (1999). Events and the onset of eating disorders: Correcting an age-old myth. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 25 (1), 83-88.
Schreiber, G.B., Pike, K.M., Wilfley, D.E., & Rodin, J. (1995). Drive for thinness in black and white preadolescent girls. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 18 (1), 59-69.
Schreiber, G.B., Robins, M., Striegel-Moore, R., Obarzanek, E., Morrison, J.A., & Wright, D.J. (1996). Weight modication efforts reported by Black and White preadolescent girls: National heart, lung, and blood institute growth and health study. Pediatrics, 98, 63-70.
Schupak-Neuberg, E., Shaw, H.E., & Stein, R.L. (1994). Relation of media exposure to eating disorder symptomatology: An examination of mediating mechanisms. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103 (4).
Shapiro, L. (1997, April). Is fat that bad? Newsweek, 59-64.
Shaw, H., Ramirez, L., Trost, A., Randall, P., & Stice, E. (2004, March). Body image and eating disturbances across ethnic groups: More similarities than differences? Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 18(1), 12-18.
Shisslak, C., Pazda, S., & Crago, M. (1990). Body weight and bulimia as discriminators of psychological characteristics among anorexic, bulimic and obese women. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 99, 380-384.
Signorielli, N. (1987). Drinking, sex, and violence on television: The cultural indicators perspective. Journal of Drug Education, 17 (3), 245-260.
Signorielli, N. (1989, September). Television and conceptions about sex roles: Maintaining conventionality and the status quo. Sex Roles, 21 (5-6), 341-360.
Signorielli, N. (1990). Television and health: Images and impact. In C. Atkin & L. Wallack (Eds.), Mass Communication and Public Health: Complexities and Conflicts (96-113). Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.
Signorielli, N. (1993). Television, the portrayal of women, and children’s attitudes. In G.L. Berry & J.K. Asamen (Eds.), Children & Television: Images in a Changing Sociocultural World (229-242). Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
Signorielli, N., Gerbner, G., & Morgan, M. (1995, Spring). Violence on television: The Cultural Indicators Project. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 39 (2), 278-283.
Signorielli, N., McLeod, D., & Healy, E. (1994, Winter). Gender stereotypes in MTV commercials: The beat goes on. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 38 (1): 91-101.
Silverstein, B., Perdue, L., Peterson, B., & Kelly, E. (1986). The role of the mass media in promoting a thin standard of bodily attractiveness for women. Sex Roles, 14 (9/10).
Silverstein, B., Peterson, B., & Perdue, L. (1986). Some correlates of the thin standard of bodily attractiveness for women. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 5 (5).
Simon, J., Schmidt, U., & Pilling, S. (2005, November). The health-service use and cost of eating disorders. Psychological Medicine, 35 (11), 1543-1551.
Slade, P.D. (1994). What is body image? Behavioral Research Therapy, 32 (5), 497-502.
Smith, D.E., Thompson, J.K., Raczynski, J.M., & Hilner, J.E. (1999). Body image among men and women in a biracial cohort: The CARDIA study. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 25 (1), 71-82.
Smith, J.E., & Krejci, J. (1991). Minorities join the majority: Eating disturbances among Hispanic and Native American youth. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 10 (2), 179-186.
Smith, L.J. (1994). A content analysis of gender differences on children’s advertising. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 38 (3), 323-337.
Smolak, L., & Striegel-Moore, R.H. (1997). Developmental research and eating disorders. In L. Smolak, P. Levine, & R. Striegel-Moore (Eds.), Developmental Psychopathology of Eating Disorders (183-203). Mahwah, NJ: L. Erlbaum Associates.
Spear, B.A. (2006, April). Does dieting increase the risk for obesity and eating disorders? Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 106 (4), 523-525.
Spitzack, C. (1990). Confessing Excess: Women and the Politics of Body Reduction. Albany: State University of New York Press.
Steiner-Adair, C. (1984). The body politic: Normal female adolescent development and the development of eating disorders. Dissertation Abstracts International, 45, 1925-1926.
Steiner-Adair, C., & Purcell, A. (1996). Approaches to mainstreaming eating disorders prevention. Eating Disorders: The Journal of Treatment and Prevention, 4 (4), 294-309.
Steinhausen, H.C. (2002). The outcome of anorexia nervosa in the 20th century. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 1284-1293.
Stevens, J., Cai, J., Evenson, K.R., & Thomas, R. (2002). Fitness and fatness as predictors of mortality from all causes and from cardiovascular disease in men and women in the lipid research clinics study. American Journal of Epidemiology, 156, 832-841.
Stice, E. (1994). Review of the evidence for a sociocultural model of bulimia nervosa and an exploration of the mechanisms of action. Clinical Psychology Review, 14 (7), 633-661.
Stice, E. (2002). Risk and maintenance factors for eating pathology: A meta analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 59, 1105-1109.
Stice, E., Nemeroff, C., & Shaw, H.E. (1996). Test of the dual pathway model of bulimia nervosa: Evidence for dietary restraint and affect regulation mechanisms. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 15 (3), 340-363.
Stice, E., Presnell, K., and Spangler, D. (2002). Risk factors for binge eating onset in adolescent girls: A 2-year prospective investigation. Health Psychology, 21, 131-138.
Stice, E., Schupak-Neuberg, E., Shaw, H.E., & Stein, R.I. (1994). Relation of media exposure to eating disorder symptomatology: An examination of mediating mechanisms. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103 (4), 836-840.
Stice, E., & Shaw, H.E. (1994). Adverse effects of the media portrayed thin-ideal on women and linkages to bulimic symptomatology. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 13 (3).
Stice, E., Ziemba, C., Margolis, J., & Flick, P. (1996). The dual pathway model differentiates bulimics, subclinical bulimics, and controls: Testing the continuity hypothesis. Behavior Therapy, 27, 531- 549.
Story, M., French, S.A., Resnick, M.D., & Blum, R.W. (1995). Ethnic/racial and socioeconomic differences in dieting behaviors and body image perceptions in adolescents. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 18 (2), 173-179.
Strasburger, V.C. (1995). Adolescents and the media: Medical and psychological impact. Developmental Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry, 33. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
Striegel-Moore, R.H., McAvay, G., & Rodin, J. (1986). Psychological and behavioral correlates of feeling fat in women. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 5, 935-947.
Striegel-Moore, R.H., Silberstein, L.R., Frensch, P., & Rodin, J. (1989). A prospective study of eating among college students. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 8 (5), 499-509.
Striegel-Moore, R.H., Silberstein, L.R., & Rodin, J. (1986). Toward an understanding of sociocultural risk factors for bulimia. American Psychologist, 41, 246-263.
Striegel-Moore, R.H., & Smolak, L. (1997). The role of race in the development of eating disorders. In L. Smolak, M. P. Levine, & R. Striegel-Moore (Eds.),Developmental Psychopathology of Eating Disorders (259-284). Mahwah, New Jersey: L. Erlbaum Associates.
Thelen, M.H., & Cormier, J.F. (1995). Desire to be thinner and weight control among children and their parents. Behavior Therapy, 26, 85-99.
Thomas, V.G. (1988). Body-image satisfaction among Black women. The Journal of Social Psychology, 129 (1), 107-112.
Thompson, B. (1996). Multiracial feminist theorizing about eating problems: Refusing to rank oppressions. Eating Disorders: The Journal of Treatment and Prevention, 4 (2), 104-114.
Thompson, J.K., Fabian, L.J., Moulton, D.O., Dunn, M.E., & Altabe, M.N. (1991). Development and validation of the physical appearance related teasing scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 56 (3), 513-521.
Thompson, J.K., Heinberg, L.J., Altabe, M., & Tantleff-Dunn, S. (1999). Exacting Beauty: Theory, Assessment, and Treatment of Body Image Disturbance. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Thompson, J.K., Heinberg, L.J., & Tantleff, S. (1991). The physical appearance comparison scale (PACS). The Behavior Therapist, 14 , 174.
Thompson J.K., Van den Berg, P., Roehrig, M., et al. (2004). The sociocultural attitudes towards appearance Scale-3 (SATAQ-3); development and validation. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 35, 293.
Tiggemann, M., & Lynch, J.E. (2001). Body image across the life span in adult women: The role of self-objectification. Developmental Psychology, 37, 243-253.
Tiggeman, M., & Pickering, A.S. (1996). Role of television in adolescent women’s body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 20 (2).
Tiggeman, M., & Rothblum, E.D. (1988). Gender differences and social consequences of perceived overweight in the United States and Australia. Sex Roles, 18 (1/2), 75-86.
Tolman, D.L. (2002). Dilemmas of Desire: Teenage Girls Talk About Sexuality. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Tolman, D.L., Impett, E.A., Tracy, A.J., & Michael, A. (2006). Looking good, sounding good: Femininity ideology and adolescent girls’ mental health. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 30, 85-95.
Turner, L. (2004, October). Television and the cutting edge: cosmetic surgery goes prime time. AMA Virtual Mentor. Retrieved from http://virtualmentor.ama-assn.org/2004/10/msoc1-0410.html
Turner, S.L., et al. (1997). The influence of fashion magazines on the body image satisfaction of college women: An exploratory analysis. Adolescence, 32, (127).
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (September, 1993).1991 National health interview survey. (CD ROM, # 1771035).Washington, DC: National Center for Health Statistics.
Van den Berg. P., Neumark-Sztainer, D., Hannan, P.J., & Haines, J. (2007, January). Is dieting advice from magazines helpful or harmful? Five-year associations with weight-control behaviors and psychological outcomes in adolescents. Pediatrics, 119 (1), (30-37).
Vandereycken, W. (2006, March/April). Media influences and body dissatisfaction in young women. Eating Disorders Review, 17 (2), 5.
Wadden, T.A., Brown, G., Foster, G.D., & Linowitz, J.R. (1991). Salience of weight-related worries in adolescent males and females. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 10 (4), 407-414.
Waller, G., Hamilton, K., & Shaw, J. (1992). Media influences on body size estimation in eating disordered and comparison subjects. British Review of Bulimia and Anorexia Nervosa, 6 (2), 81-87.
Waller, G., et al. (1994). Beauty is in the eye of the beholder: Media influences on the psychopathology of eating problems. Appetite, 23.
Waller, G., Hamilton, K., & Shaw, J. (1992). Media influences on body size estimation in eating disordered and comparison subjects. British Review of Bulimia and Anorexia Nervosa, 6 (2).
Ward, L.M. (2002). Does television exposure affect emerging adults’ attitudes and assumptions about sexual relationships? Correlational and experimental confirmation. Journal of Youth & Adolescence, 31, 1-15.
Ward, L.M. (2004, March). The sexy/cool ideal: Contributions of media use to adolescents’ gender and sexual schema. Poster/paper presented at the biennial meeting of the Society for Research on Adolescence, Baltimore, MD.
Ward, L.M., & Averitt, L. (2005, November). Associations between media use and young adults’ perceptions of first intercourse. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Communication Association, Boston.
Ward, L.M., & Rivadeneyra, R. (1999). Contributions of entertainment television to adolescents’ sexual attitudes and expectations: The role of viewing amount versus viewer involvement. Journal of Sex Research, 36, 237-249.
Watson, R. (2003). EU parliament calls for tougher rules on breast implants. British Medical Journal, 326, 414.
Wertheim, E.H., Paxton, S.J., Schutz, H.K., & Muir, S.L. (1997). Why do adolescent girls watch their weight? An interview study examining sociocultural pressures to be thin. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 42 (4), 345-355.
White, M.A., & Grilo, C.M. (2006). Psychiatric co-morbidity in binge eating disorder as a function of smoking history. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 67, 594-599.
Whitney, J., Murray, J., Gavan, K., Todd, G., Whitaker, W., & Treasure, J. (2005, November). Experience of caring for someone with anorexia nervosa: Qualitative study. British Journal of Psychiatry, 187.
Wilfley, D.E., Schreiber, G.B., Pike, K.M. Striegel-Moore, R.H., Wright, D.J., & Rodin, J. (1996). Eating disturbances and body image: A comparison of a community sample of adult Black and White women. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 20 (4), 377-387.
Williamson, J. (1985). Consuming Passions: The Dynamics of Popular Culture. New York: Marion Boyars Publishers.
Wilson, G., Grilo, C., & Vitousek, K. (2007). Psychological treatment of eating disorders. American Psychologist 62 (3), 199-216.
Wiseman, C.V., Gray, J.J., Mosimann, J.E. & Ahrens, A.H. (1992). Cultural expectations of thinness in women: An update. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 11 (1), 85-89.
Wolf, N. (1992). The Beauty Myth. New York: Doubleday.
Wooley, S.C., & Wooley, O.W. (1984, February). Feeling fat in a thin society. Glamour, 198-252.
Yanovski, S.Z. (2003). Binge eating disorder and obesity in 2003: Could treating an eating disorder have a positive effect on the obesity epidemic? International Journal of eating Disorders 34 (Suppl): S117-S120.
Yoshimura, K. (1995). Acculturative and sociocultural influences on the development of eating disorders in Asian-American females. Eating Disorders: the Journal of Treatment and Prevention, 3 (3), 216-228.
Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance-US, 1995. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, CDC, US Public Health Service. Sept. 27, 1996:45:SS-4:1-84.
Zhu, A.J., & Walsh, B.T. (2002). In Review: Pharmacologic treatment of eating disorders. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 47, 227-234.
Zuckerman, D. (2005). Teenagers and cosmetic surgery. AMA Virtual Mentor, 7 (3). Retrieved from http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/category/print/14695.html
Zurbriggen, E.L., & Morgan, E.M. (2006). Who wants to marry a millionaire? Reality dating television programs, attitudes toward sex, and sexual behaviors. Sex Roles, 54, 1-17.